How I built a typical Ubuntu Terminal using HTML & CSS

Today, many young developers don’t like taking the time to understand how HTML and CSS work under the hood before delving into front-end frameworks like React, Angular, Vue, etc. They all want to jump into using the tools and technologies to build apps. I know that feeling too. I was once at that state.

Without Further Ado, let’s get down to business.

In my project root directory, I created an index.htm file using my text editor and input the following boilerplate to start with:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
<title>Ubuntu Terminal</title>
<meta name="description" content="">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="style.css"/>
</head>
<body>
<!-- Body Section -->
</body>
</html>

As you read through, you’ll notice I made use of 2 HTML5 semantic elements <main> and <section> introduced by W3C to clearly define elements.

You should also consider using HTML5 semantic elements in your next project.

Now, in the body section, I first inserted the main tag, giving it an id attribute of container and nest a div tag with an id attribute of terminal. I then sectioned the terminal into two (2) parts: the terminal bar and the terminal body. For the terminal bar section, I used a section tag with an id attribute of terminal__bar while the terminal body section takes a section tag with an id attribute of terminal__body.

I don’t want to go into many details so I don't bore you. You all want to see codes, not epistles.

The code snippet below shows everything you need to see. I believe even a newbie would understand what has been done there.

<main id="container">
<div id="terminal">
<!-- Terminal Bar -->
<section id="terminal__bar">
<div id="bar__buttons">
<button class="bar__button" id="bar__button--exit">&#10005;</button>
<button class="bar__button">&#9472;</button>
<button class="bar__button">&#9723;</button>
</div>
<p id="bar__user">fobabs@ubuntu: ~</p>
</section>
<!-- Terminal Body -->
<section id="terminal__body">
<div id="terminal__prompt">
<span id="terminal__prompt--user">fobabs@ubuntu:</span>
<span id="terminal__prompt--location">~</span>
<span id="terminal__prompt--bling">$</span>
<span id="terminal__prompt--cursor"></span>
</div>
</section>
</div>
</main>

The BEM methodology in naming my class and id attributes was used here

Now done with the skeletal work of the terminal, it’s time to add some beauty.

@import url('https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Ubuntu');
@import url('https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Ubuntu+Mono');
body {
background: linear-gradient(45deg, #57003f 0%,#f57453 100%);
font-family: Ubuntu;
}
#container {
display: flex;
justify-content: center;
align-items: center;
height: 100vh;
}
#terminal {
width: 70vw;
height: 65vh;
box-shadow: 2px 4px 10px rgba(0,0,0,0.5);
}
#terminal__bar {
display: flex;
width: 100%;
height: 30px;
align-items: center;
padding: 0 8px;
box-sizing: border-box;
border-top-left-radius: 5px;
border-top-right-radius: 5px;
background: linear-gradient(#504b45 0%,#3c3b37 100%);
}
#bar__buttons {
display: flex;
align-items: center;
}
.bar__button {
display: flex;
justify-content: center;
align-items: center;
padding: 0;
margin-right: 5px;
font-size: 8px;
height: 12px;
width: 12px;
box-sizing: border-box;
border: none;
border-radius: 100%;
background: linear-gradient(#7d7871 0%, #595953 100%);
text-shadow: 0px 1px 0px rgba(255,255,255,0.2);
box-shadow: 0px 0px 1px 0px #41403A, 0px 1px 1px 0px #474642;
}
.bar__button:hover {
cursor: pointer;
}
.bar__button:focus {
outline: none;
}
#bar__button--exit {
background: linear-gradient(#f37458 0%, #de4c12 100%);
background-clip: padding-box;
}
#bar__user {
color: #d5d0ce;
margin-left: 6px;
font-size: 14px;
line-height: 15px;
}
#terminal__body {
background: rgba(56, 4, 40, 0.9);
font-family: 'Ubuntu Mono';
height: calc(100% - 30px);
padding-top: 2px;
margin-top: -1px;
}
#terminal__prompt {
display: flex;
}
#terminal__prompt--user {
color: #7eda28;
}
#terminal__prompt--location {
color: #4878c0;
}
#terminal__prompt--bling {
color: #dddddd;
}
#terminal__prompt--cursor {
display: block;
height: 17px;
width: 8px;
margin-left: 9px;
animation: blink 1200ms linear infinite;
}
@keyframes blink {
0% {
background: #ffffff;
}
49% {
background: #ffffff;
}
60% {
background: transparent;
}
99% {
background: transparent;
} 100% {
background: #ffffff;
}
}
@media (max-width: 600px) {
#terminal {
max-height: 90%;
width: 90%;
}
}

Checking the CSS code above, you’ll notice I made use of ubuntu fonts to make the terminal look “Ubuntuish”. I believe it is understandable enough to comprehend.

“Et voilà!”. I believe you enjoyed me.

P.S. I hope to add some interactivity and functionalities to make it a full-fledged app in the future. If you want to contribute to the project, you can fork it on GitHub.

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Developer 👨🏿‍💻